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Christian Louboutin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Louboutin) Jump to: navigation, search Christian Louboutin Christian Louboutin in 2011 documentary for W (magazine) . Born ( 1964-01-07 ) 7 January 1964 (age 53)
Paris, France Occupation Fashion designer Years active 1991–present Christian Louboutin Ltd. Type Private, S.A. Industry Consumer goods Founded 1991 Founder Christian Louboutin
Henri Seydoux
Bruno Chamberlain and Faheema Moosa [1] Headquarters Paris , France Key people Christian Louboutin, co-founder
Bruno Chamberland, co-founder and CEO [2]
Henri Seydoux, co-founder and director
Alexis Mourot, COO and GM [2]
[3] Products Shoes, purses, wallets, cosmetics, fragrance Revenue $250 million (31 December 2010) on 600,000 pairs of shoes a year [4] Number of employees 420 (2011) [5] Website christianlouboutin.com

Christian Louboutin ( French:  [kʁis.tjɑ̃ lu.bu.tɛ̃] ; born 7 January 1964) is a French fashion designer whose high-end stiletto footwear incorporates shiny, red-lacquered soles that have become his signature. [6] Initially a freelance designer for fashion houses, he started his own shoe salon in Paris, with his shoes finding favor with celebrity clientele. He has partnered with other organizations for creative projects including limited edition pieces, gallery exhibits, and even a custom bar. His company has since branched out into men's footwear, handbags, fragrances and makeup.

Contents

Early life [ edit ]

Louboutin was born and raised in Paris's 12th arrondissement. He was the only son of Roger, a cabinet-maker , [7] and Irene, a homemaker, both French, from Brittany. He has three sisters. Louboutin said in a 2012 interview that he was "much darker-skinned than everyone else in his family. You know, I felt I wasn't French. My family was very French and so I decided they had probably adopted me. But instead of feeling it was terrible and that I was an outsider who had to go and find my real family, I invented my own history, full of characters from Egypt because I was very into the pharaohs." [8] He incidentally discovered, following a revelation by one of his sisters in 2014 that his biological father was in fact an Egyptian, with whom his mother Irene had been having a secret affair. [9] [10]

Louboutin was expelled from school three times and then decided to run away from home at the age of 12, [11] at which point his mother allowed him to move out to live at a friend's house. [5] He faced much opposition when he decided to drop out from school. However, he claims that what helped him make up his mind was an interview on TV with Sophia Loren, in which she introduced her sister, saying she had to leave school when she was only 12, but when she turned 50, she got her degree. He later remarked, "Everybody applauded! And I thought, 'Well, at least if I regret it I'm going to be like the sister of Sophia Loren!'"

Personal life [ edit ]

Landscape architect Louis Benech has been his partner since 1997. Louboutin and his partner spend time between their homes in Paris's 1st arrondissement, [12] a fisherman's cottage in Lisbon, [13] a palace in Aleppo, [14] a houseboat on the Nile christened Dahabibi-my love boat , and a house in Luxor. The Luxor domicile is a former craftsman's workshop, made of earthen bricks, to which he has added an additional floor and a rooftop belvedere. [15] Additionally, he shares a 13th-century castle in the Vendée with his business partner Bruno Chamberlain. [5]

Career [ edit ]

Louboutin began sketching shoes in his early teens, ignoring his academic studies. Going through a punk phase, he was in a few films, including 1979 cult classic Race d'ep and The Homosexual Century , which attracted an English-language audience. His first job was at the Folies Bergères, the cabaret where he assisted the entertainers backstage. He was also a fixture on the city's party scene, clubbing his nights away alongside Mick Jagger and Andy Warhol. [5]

His little formal training included drawing and the decorative arts at the Académie d'Art Roederer. Louboutin claims his fascination with shoes began in 1976, when he visited the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie on the avenue Daumesnil. It was there that he saw a sign from Africa forbidding women wearing sharp stilettos from entering a building for fear of damage to the extensive wood flooring. This image stayed in his mind, and he later used this idea in his designs. "I wanted to defy that," Louboutin said. "I wanted to create something that broke rules and made women feel confident and empowered." [16]

Fascinated by world cultures, he ran away in his teens to Egypt and spent a year in India. Louboutin returned to Paris in 1981, where he assembled a portfolio of drawings of elaborate high heels. He brought it to the top couture houses. The effort resulted in employment with Charles Jourdan. Subsequently, Louboutin met Roger Vivier, who claims to have invented the stiletto, or spiked-heel shoe. Louboutin became an apprentice in Vivier's atelier.

Going on to serve as a freelance designer, Louboutin designed women's shoes for Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, and Maud Frizon. In the late 1980s, he turned away from fashion to become a landscape gardener and to contribute to Vogue but missed working with shoes and set up his company in 1991.

With funds from two backers, he opened a Paris shoe salon in 1991 with Princess Caroline of Monaco as his first customer. She complimented the store one day when a fashion journalist was present, and the journalist's subsequent publication of Princess' comments helped greatly to increase Louboutin's renown. Clients such as Diane von Fürstenberg and Catherine Deneuve followed. Later, those interested in his stiletto heels have included Christina Aguilera, Shirley Coates, Joan Collins, Jennifer Lopez, Madonna, Tina Turner, Marion Cotillard, Nicki Minaj, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Blake Lively. Sarah Jessica Parker wore a pair of shoes by Louboutin for her wedding. Britney Spears wears a pair of high-heeled Louboutins in her music video "If U Seek Amy" that were not available for sale until a month after the video was released. [17] [18]

Louboutin has topped the Luxury Institute's annual Luxury Brand Status Index (LBSI) for three years; the brand's offerings were declared the Most Prestigious Women's Shoes in 2007, 2008, and 2009. [19] [20] [21] By 2011, Louboutin became the most searched-for shoe brand online. [22]

Shoes [ edit ]

An example of Louboutin's signature red-bottoms

Louboutin helped bring stilettos back into fashion in the 1990s and 2000s, [ citation needed ] designing dozens of styles with heel heights of 120 mm (4.72 inches) and higher. The designer's professed goal has been to "make a woman look sexy, beautiful, to make her legs look as long as [he] can". [23] [24] While he does offer some lower-heeled styles, Louboutin is generally associated with his dressier evening-wear designs incorporating jeweled straps, bows, feathers, patent leather, red soles, and other similar decorative touches. He is most popularly known for the red leather soles on his high heel shoes, commonly referred to as "sammy red soled shoes". [25]

His signature red soles were first created in 1993. “My sketches were not reproduced exactly as I had designed them and I couldn’t figure out why. The two dimensional sketch was so powerful on paper, but when turned into a three-dimensional object, it was somehow lacking energy. Frustrated after having tried different things to liven up the design, I spontaneously grabbed my assistant’s red nail polish and painted the sole. I instantly knew that this would be a success!”. [26]

Christian Louboutin's red-bottom colour code is Pantone 18-1663 TPX. [27] [28]

His single biggest client is Danielle Steel, who is reputed to own over 6,000 pairs and is known to have purchased up to 80 pairs at a time when shopping at his stores. Ms. Steel is an American novelist, currently the best selling author alive and the fourth bestselling author of all time, with over 800 million copies sold. [29]

Trademark litigation [ edit ]

The red sole is protected as a trademark in several countries, and litigation has taken place in various disputes in which Louboutin claimed infringement of its rights. Litigation generally also involved discussion of the validity or the scope of protection of the trademark.

Belgium - Louboutin vs. Dr. Adams Footwear

In 2013, Louboutin filed a trademark infringement claim of the Benelux trademark against Dr. Adams. The Court of First Instance of Brussels declared the trademark however invalid. [30] That decision was overturned by the Brussels Court of Appeal, who forbade the sale of shoes with a red sole by Dr. Adams. [31]

France - Louboutin vs. Zara

In France, in first instance the trademark of Louboutin was held valid, but not infringed by Zara. The Court of Appeal however considered the French trademark invalid. The latter decision was upheld by the French Supreme Court in 2012. [32]

Netherlands - Louboutin vs. Van Haren

Also in 2013, in The Netherlands, Louboutin initiated litigation against Van Haren, seeking it to stop selling the red soled shoe "5th Avenue by Halle Berry", based also on the Benelux trademark. Litigation in this case is still ongoing, and the District Court of The Hague has proposed in 2015 to ask preliminary questions to the Court of Justice of the European Union that it considers necessary in order to determine whether the trademark is valid. [33]

United States - Christian Louboutin vs. Yves Saint Laurent

In 2011, Christian Louboutin company filed a US trademark infringement claim of its red-soled shoes against designer Yves Saint Laurent. [34] The firm is expecting that the YSL shoe design will be revoked and is seeking US$1 million in damages. [35] However, in August 2011, U.S. District Judge Victor Marrero denied the firm's request to stop the sale of women's shoes with red soles by Yves Saint Laurent. The judge questioned the validity of the trademark, writing, "Louboutin's claim would cast a red cloud over the whole industry, cramping what other designers do, while allowing Louboutin to paint with a full palette." [36] Judge Marrero also wrote, "Louboutin is unlikely to be able to prove its red outsole brand is entitled to trademark protection, even if it has gained enough public recognition in the market to have acquired secondary meaning." [37] In his thirty-two-page decision, Judge Marrero compared fashion designers to painters and noted how creativity for both is dependent upon using color as "an indispensable medium" that "plays a unique role." The Court observed that: "The law should not countenance restraints that would interfere with creativity and stifle competition by one designer, while granting another a monopoly invested with the right to exclude use of an ornamental or functional medium necessary for freest and most productive artistic expression by all engaged in the same enterprise." [38] Jewelry company Tiffany & Co., which has its blue box trademarked, filed an amicus curiae brief supporting the right to trademark a color. [39] In September 2012, the court finally ruled that Louboutin retains the exclusive right to use the color red on the bottom of its shoes whenever the outer portion of the shoe is any color besides red, while Yves Saint Laurent can continue to sell its shoes with red soles as long as the whole shoe is red. [40] The YSL monochromatic shoe – red upper, red outsole – over which the lawsuit originally had been brought and against which Louboutin had tried and failed to get a preliminary injunction, therefore won't infringe the trimmed-down trademark. [41]

Switzerland – Christian Louboutin vs. Eidgenössisches Institut für Geistiges Eigentum (IGE)

The Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property rejected Louboutin's trademark's extension to Switzerland in 2011, considering the trademark invalid. The Swiss Federal Supreme Court confirmed the invalidity of the trademark in Switzerland in February 2017. [42]

Turnover and pricing [ edit ]

In his first year of business, Louboutin sold 200 pairs of shoes. [1] In 2012, he sold 700,000 a year [1] and expected revenue to grow at an annual rate of 40 percent. [43] In terms of market share, the U.S. accounts for 52 percent of Louboutin's sales; Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 30 percent; and Asia & Japan, 18 percent. [43] 95% of the firm's $300 million in annual revenue [44] comes from shoes, [43] with the remainder derived from purses and handbags. [43] They expect the volume of handbags to eventually represent 20% of their annual sales. [43]

Wholesale purchases represented in 2009 88% of the business. [43] Overseas, the company has partnered with Pedder Group of Hong Kong for distribution in their Asian markets and the Chalhoub Group of the United Arab Emirates for their representation in the Middle East. [45]

As of March 2012, the firm employed 420 staff members [46] (referred to as Loubi's Angels) around the world. Most of the footwear is manufactured and produced at his factory in Milan, but he also maintains a small atelier on Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for private clients and one of a kind creations. [7]

Louboutins can sell from $495 and up, with crystal-encrusted pairs costing up to $6,000. [7] The base price for a custom-made pair of Louboutin is $4,000. If the style already exists, it is standard price tag plus 30%. [7]

Brand extensions [ edit ]

Louboutin has said over the past decade, he has been offered licensing deals on everything from cars and glasses to swimwear and ready-to-wear, but has turned them down as he does not want his name to be one that can be licensed. [44] In 2003, his first extension outside of shoes was the introduction of his handbags and purses line.

In 2011, he launched a collection of men's footwear at a new exclusive store in Paris. Two explanations were given why Louboutin started a men's line. The first was a story of a French woman who asked him to make her a pair of shoes for her very large feet. He custom-created the size 13 1/2 shoes for her, but she didn't end up buying them. Instead, he passed them along to a friend who gave them to her husband. [47] The second story was that the idea of starting a men's line came from musician Mika, who asked Louboutin to design all the shoes for his show for his tour. [48] He also noticed, "There is a group of men that is thinking a little bit more like women. They're super-excited to buy the 'new thing.' I've noticed on blogs, for example, that men are very serious about their shoes now. They treat shoes very much as objects, as collectors' items. Of course, there is still a group that is more conservative in their tastes. They like to pass their shoes down to their son or say they have had a pair for 25 years". [44] A unique feature introduced was the Tattoo Parlor, where customers could have digital photos taken of their ink and embroidered onto their shoes [47] or, embroider the signature brogues in addition to selecting designs by Christian Louboutin with prices starting at around $8,000. [49]

In 2012, Louboutin partnered with Batallure Beauty LLC to launch Christian Louboutin Beauté to enter the luxury beauty market. [50] Catherine Roggero is the New York-based general manager for Christian Louboutin, a venture between Christian Louboutin SAS and Batallure Beauty. [51] Roggero "will be responsible for developing Louboutin's beauty business." [51]

On 23 July 2014, Christian Louboutin Beauté launched a range of nail lacquers, exclusively debuting the signature red shade, Rouge Louboutin, at the Saks Fifth Avenue flagship in New York and its 15 US boutiques. In support of this launch, the high-end department store created Loubiville, a five-window visual merchandising display. The range was more widely distributed on 6 August 2014 to Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom, and select Sephora boutiques. The product is a logical brand extension, as an assistant's nail polish was the impetus for the shoes' red soles. Much like the shoes, the polish is receiving attention for its provocative shape, a long spiky cap, designed to resemble a calligrapher's brush or a spire. [52]

In 2015, he expanded his foray into beauty with a lipstick collection. The tube was inspired by Babylonian architecture and Middle Eastern antiquities. [53] As of 2017, he offers 38 tones, divided into three collections.

Louboutin entered the fragrance market in 2016 with the release of three parfums: Bikini Questa Sera, with jasmine and tuberose notes; Tornade Blonde, with rose and cassis notes; and Trouble in Heaven, with patchouli and amber notes. The bottles were designed by Thomas Heatherwick's studio, which was also responsible for designing the 2012 Olympic cauldron. [54]

Projects [ edit ]

In 2007, he collaborated with the filmmaker David Lynch on Fetish , an exhibition of his shoes in Lynch's photographs as erotic sculptural objects including ballet pumps made vertical by an impossible heel, or shoes with heels projecting inches beyond the sole [55] (Viennese heel). He partnered once again with Lynch and Swizz Beats to compose music when Louboutin directed a show at Crazy Horse, called Feu , which ran from 5 March to 31 May 2012. [56]

In conjunction with Bergdorf Goodman, he held a competition for design students at the Parsons New School for Design who graduated in 2010 and 2011, encouraging them to create apparel inspired by Louboutin's silhouettes of the past two decades, as well as the brand's new capsule collection. [57]

In 2011, Louboutin celebrated his 20th anniversary with a new self-titled book, published by Rizzoli. [58] [59] Bound in pink faux leather with gilded pages and a five-piece fold-out cover, the book covers the designer's most iconic styles as well as an insight into his influences and photos from his personal archives. American actor John Malkovich, who is a close friend of Louboutin's, provides the book's foreword, while some of the photography is courtesy of David Lynch. [60] The book is divided into six chapters: the first documents Louboutin's biography, noting his early work for Chanel and Yves Saint Laurent; the second looks at the various interiors of the label's international stores; the third charts 20 years of Louboutin design, the fourth features intimate photographs of the designer's Paris and Egypt homes, while the fifth and sixth explore his collaborations. [60] The retail price of the book on launch was US$150. [59]

In 2012, he was commissioned by Disney to create a modern-day Cinderella-inspired pair of slippers limited to just 20 pieces, to complement release of the Cinderella : Diamond Edition Blu-ray Combo Pack in the fall. [61] Louboutin also appears in a Disney-produced 10-minute short called The Magic of the Glass Slipper: A Cinderella Story, a bonus feature on the Cinderella Blu-ray DVD. [62] He also partnered with Mattel that same year to create a limited edition "Louboutin Barbie". The first in the series was a cat burglar themed Barbie, which retailed for $150 and sold out the first day. [63]

At the 2012 Grey Goose Winter Ball, he designed his dream cocktail bar to benefit the Elton John foundation. Dubbed the Crazy Luxor bar , the sculptural piece is shaped like a stiletto and is finished in a high-shine black lacquer with a red trim to echo the designer's signature red sole. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics on the facade of the bar are in honour of his love of Egypt. The bar was later auctioned at the Architecture of Taste-themed ball on 29 October 2012 in Battersea Park, London. [64]

Also in 2012, an iPhone app was launched allowing users to view seasonal collections, watch brand videos, make a brand wish list, find a store, and view a feature called '20 Ans' ('20 years'), which shows the hand drawn designs of the Louboutin shoes and the finished product. [65]

Louboutin was also one of the judges at the Martini Royale Casting Party to find the new face of the drinks brand. [66]

In 2013, Louboutin was celebrated at Toronto's Design Exchange [67] with a comprehensive exhibit featuring themes of showgirls, fetish, construction and travel. [68]

On October 12, 2017, Louboutin will launch a new project collaborating with Indian haute couture designer, Sabyasachi Mukherjee. The line features fifteen women's styles and four men's styles, each a unique design influenced by Indian textiles, embroidery, patterns, and art. Louboutin noted his excitement about working with Indian handcraft, stating he finds it to be the best in the world. [69]

Stores [ edit ]

In the spring of 2012, the company opened its first men's store in New York City, with over 1,000 square feet of space and located next to its existing Horatio Street store. [70] From previous experience in his Paris store, Louboutin claimed that women feel uncomfortable when men stare at them while they try on shoes, hence the separate stores. [49]

The first Louboutin Men's Boutique, Christian Louboutin Boutique Homme on Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau in Paris, opened in the summer of 2012.

Country Number of stores Cities Location France 4 Paris (4) Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2), Rue du Faubourg St-Honoré, Rue de Grenelle United States of America 14 New York City (3), Las Vegas (3), Los Angeles, Costa Mesa, Atlanta, Dallas, Miami, Chicago, San Francisco, Honolulu Washington Street, Madison Avenue and Horatio Street in New York City, Caesars Palace, The Palazzo and the Shops at Crystals (Aria) in Las Vegas, Beverly Hills in Los Angeles (Nd Robertson Boulevard, West Hollywood) and South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa, Highland Park Village in Dallas, Design District in Miami, Oak Street in Chicago, Buckhead Atlanta in Atlanta, Maiden Lane in San Francisco, [71] Kalakaua Avenue in Honolulu United Kingdom 3 London (3) Motcomb Street (Original), Mount Street, Dover Street (Men's) Ireland 1 Dublin (1) Brown Thomas, Grafton Street Canada 1 Toronto (1) Yorkville United Arab Emirates 2 Dubai (2) Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall Kuwait 1 Kuwait City Salhiya Complex Vietnam 1 Ho Chi Minh City Dong Khoi Street Bahrain 1 Manama City Center Manama Lebanon 1 Beirut Beirut Souks Russia 4 Moscow (3), Saint Petersburg Malaya Bronnaya Street (the original), Petrovka Street, Stoleshnikov Lane, Bolshaya Konyushennaya Ulitsa Saudi Arabia 2 Riyadh, Jeddah Kingdom Centre-Riyadh, Al Khayyat Center-Jeddah Singapore 1 Singapore City Ngee Ann City Brazil 2 Brasília, São Paulo Iguatemi São Paulo, Iguatemi Brasília, Australia 2 Sydney, Melbourne Westfield Sydney, Collins Street, Melbourne China 6 Hong Kong (3), Shanghai, Beijing, Shenyang On Lan Street, Hong Kong; The Gateway, Hong Kong, Canton Road; Shanghai Centre, Sanlitun Road, Shenhe District Denmark 1 Copenhagen Grønnegade 6 Indonesia 1 Jakarta Plaza Indonesia Japan 4 Tokyo (2), Nagoya, Osaka Ginza District in Tokyo, Shinsaibashi, Osaka Taiwan 1 Taipei Breeze Center Spain 1 Madrid Calle Claudio Coello Switzerland 2 Geneva, Zurich Rue Du Rhone, Wühre 7 India 2 New Delhi, Mumbai Emporio Mall, Horniman Circle Gardens Qatar 1 Doha Villaggio Mall Thailand 1 Bangkok Central Embassy Turkey 2 [ citation needed ] Istanbul Abdi İpekçi Street, İstinye Park Italy 2 Rome, Milan Piazza di San Lorenzo in Lucina in Rome, Via Vincenzo Capelli in Milan Monaco 1 Monaco Avenue de Grande Bretagne Belgium 1 Brussels Grote Zavel

Christian Louboutin Miami is located on 40th Street in the Design District of Miami, Florida. [72] Louboutin chose to open a store in Miami because of the mix of businesses, the small urban scale, and his obvious following there. During Miami Basel art fair when the store opened in 2009, he said, "You don't get this with Europeans—but Americans actually come into my office in Paris to meet me, and a lot of those people are from Miami." The boutique stocks Louboutin's most colorful, strappy, precarious styles, on account of the subtropical climate and the fact that, Louboutin says, "people barely walk in the street." [73]

The 2,400-square-foot space was designed by Eric Clough and 212box. [73] Above a steel awning shaped like a Louboutin shoe in profile, with a red underside to boot, pink orchids sprout from the coral-stone facade. Still more orchids project from a wall in the entry gallery. Pantyhose have been recycled by Dutch artist Madeleine Berkhemer into a multi-colored sculpture that stretches over the empty concrete floor with some of Louboutin's signature shoes dangling in the overhead tangle of nylon "like insects trapped in a psychedelic spider's web." [72] This L-shape space wraps two sides of a rectangular volume clad almost entirely in one-way mirror: a box that contains the merchandise for sale while allowing people who've just come in the front door to "witness other people falling in love with the shoes," Clough says. [73]

The inside areas in the store are defined by lush red carpeting. Blue, blown-glass chandeliers hang from the ceilings. [72] Hieroglyphics, symbols and Braille are carved onto wooden Codebox Tiles that line some of the store's interior walls. [74] hiding the words of a poem by contemporary American poet Lyn Hejinian in plain sight, in the etched wooden tiles lining the gallery wall behind the orchids. "This is the way I / Want to go in and / Out of heaven... / Windows full at 5pm / My skull a place / Except that I think of space as the more exciting," the lines read. [73] These coded tiles appear in many Louboutin stores designed by Clough around the world, including São Paulo, Brazil. [75]

Counterfeiting [ edit ]

Louboutin's own website sells some of their products online, and contains a statement that it is the only legitimate online source with the word Louboutin in the domain name to do so. [76] [77] [78] [79] Legitimate Louboutin shoes can also be purchased in-store and online from several high-end retailers such as Harrods, Harvey Nichols, Selfridges, Joseph, Browns, Matches, Cricket and Cruise and online through Net-a-Porter and The Outnet in the UK. Barneys, Saks Fifth Avenue, Neiman Marcus, Bergdorf Goodman, and Nordstrom sell genuine Louboutin in the US. In Canada, Christian Louboutin shoes are available from Holt Renfrew and Davids.

Online, counterfeit Louboutin shoes are available [80] [81] In the last few years, the company has served hundreds of DMCA notices on Google to remove many sites selling fake goods from their search results. [82]

The company set up a separate website focused on protecting the brand and detailing more than 3,000 websites that sell fake goods, many of which have been closed down. [79]

 Filmography [ edit ]

In popular culture [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

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  37. ^ Abraham, Tamara (15 August 2011). "Christian Louboutin to appeal after rival YSL wins right to sell shoes with red soles while court battle continues". Daily Mail . London. Archived from the original on 2013-06-09.  
  38. ^ Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton (21 August 2011). "Court Denies Louboutin Preliminary Injunction: Holds Fashion Blind to Single Color Marks". The National Law Review. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01.   CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ Krupnick, Ellie (24 October 2011). "Tiffany & Co. Files in Support of Christian Louboutin". Huffington Post . Archived from the original on 2011-10-26.  
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  41. ^ Schiff Hardin LLP (12 September 2012). "The Other Shoe Drops: Appeals Court Saves But Trims Louboutin Red Sole Trademark". The National Law Review. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.  
  42. ^ Decision 4A_363/2016 of 7 February 2017. See: Fontana, Katharina (24 February 2017). "Entscheid des Bundesgerichts: Kein Schutz für rote Schuhsohlen". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German) . Retrieved 24 February 2017 .  
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  45. ^ Sami Ammari, Siba (21 January 2010). "Chalhoub Group signs regional joint venture with Christian Louboutin in Middle East". AMEinfo.com . AME Info FZ LLC. Archived from the original on 2013-06-09.  
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  48. ^ Sebra, Matthew (20 September 2012). "The GQ+A: Sole Talk with Christian Louboutin". GQ Magazine . Archived from the original on 2012-09-23.  
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  51. ^ a b Born, Pete (17 March 2014). "Catherine Roggero Joins Christian Louboutin Beauté". Women's Wear Daily . Archived from the original on 2014-03-22.  
  52. ^ Socha, Miles (23 July 2014). "Christian Louboutin Enters the Beauty Arena With Nail Polish". Women's Wear Daily . Women's Wear Daily/Conde Nast. Archived from the original on 2014-07-26.  
  53. ^ Gaynor, Emily (5 August 2015). "This Is What a $90 Lipstick Looks Like". Teen Vogue . Archived from the original on 2015-09-27.  
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  56. ^ Rubin, Julia (17 January 2012). "Louboutin's Crazy Horse Strip Show Will Feature Music By David Lynch". Styleite . Archived from the original on 2012-01-19.  
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  58. ^ Alfonsi, Sharyn (18 November 2011). "Red Sole Man: Christian Louboutin's Signature Shoe Has Made Him an Icon". ABC Nightline . Archived from the original on 2011-11-18.  
  59. ^ a b Berry, Allison (13 December 2011). "TIME's Gift Guides: Stylish Books". Time Magazine . Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.  
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  61. ^ Beker, Jeanne (19 July 2012). "Christian Louboutin tells Cinderella story to Jeanne Beker". The Toronto Star . Archived from the original on 2012-07-21.  
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  63. ^ Perez, Coco (8 December 2009). "Louboutin Barbie Sells Out in One Day!". Coco Perez . Archived from the original on 2010-01-02.  
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  83. ^ Sepinwall, Alan (18 August 2013). "Review: 'Breaking Bad' – 'Buried': Geocaching Out". Hitfix . Archived from the original on 2013-08-19.  
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  85. ^ Rogers, Christopher (18 August 2013). " ' Breaking Bad' Recap: 'Buried' – Marie almost captures Skyler's Baby". Hollywood Life . Bonnie Fuller. Archived from the original on 2013-08-19.  
  86. ^ "Ленинград — Экспонат" (in Russian). YouTube. sosimc. 3 January 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-01-16.  
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Latest Posts

Four Herbs You Can Grow At Home That Are Good For Your Brain

There is a special type of herb you can grow at home that will help keep your brain healthy — these substances are known as nootropics, and they are a fantastic way to improve your memory and enhance your overall cognitive performance. In addition, growing your own herbs also a positive impact on the environment.

Anytime you grow your own herbal supplements instead of turning to the pharmaceutical industry, it cuts down on the amount of carbon emissions that are produced by companies that create medications and supplements of all types. Additionally, you will be able to offset your personal carbon emissions by growing these herbs at home instead of utilizing gasoline to pick them up at a store.

nootropic supplements

What are Nootropics?

For those of you that are unfamiliar with the term nootropics, they are chemicals that have mild to positive mental effects such as improvements to memory and clarity of thought. They’re sometimes called “smart drugs,” and are valued for their ability to enhance mental functions. You may be familiar with some of the more commonly seen ones already, such as Ginkgo Biloba and Gotu Kola.

Another popular nootropic that is usually taken in supplement form is piracetam, and studies have shown that this particular nootropic increases your mental performance. If taking supplements doesn’t appeal to you, it’s easy to grow your own natural nootropics. Your body usually tolerates natural ways of ingesting vitamins and other needed nutrients better, anyway. With a little “can do” attitude and DIY mentality, you’ll be able to set up a garden for growing these beneficial herbs.

Cold Weather Growing Tips

If you live in an area that has cold temperatures during the fall and winter, it might not seem possible to successfully maintain an herb garden. Fortunately, there are actually many ways that you can keep these herbs alive during inclement weather. For example, you could choose to build a standard greenhouse on your property or you can create a small one out of plastic sheeting and PVC pipes. The latter option can be easily moved indoors during the harshest aspects of the cold season. You can even take a completely DIY approach by taking an old over the door shoe organizer and turning it into a hanging herb garden that can be placed inside or outdoors.

What Type of Herbal Nootropics Can I Grow?

Here’s a list of four herbal nootropics that you can grow on your own:

#1: Huperzine A

If you want to floss your brain, you’ll definitely want to add this plant to your garden. This herb is a derivative of a moss called firmoss that is found in certain parts of Southeast Asia and India. One of the main perks of using Huperzine A is the fact that it naturally inhibits acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine within your body. Although both of these chemicals are necessary for proper body functionality, acetylcholine can be overrun by acetylcholinesterase, and this leads to cognitive decline and low levels of memory retention. Inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase by utilizing Huperzine A will allow your body’s natural levels of acetylcholine to remain high enough for proper memory retention without causing any negative side effects. According to WebMD, Huperzine A is “thought to be beneficial for problems with memory, loss of mental abilities (dementia), and the muscular disorder myasthenia gravis because it causes an increase in the levels of acetylcholine.”

#2: Bacopa Monnieri

This flowering herb is typically found in wetland areas of North America, Asia and India. It has been used as a natural medication for cognitive enhancement and epilepsy for thousands of years, and research indicates that it is a powerful antioxidant that will enhance your memory. It is not yet known how this herb’s nootropic compounds achieve these feats, but numerous studies have proven that memory retention, restoration and formation can all be improved by adding Bacopa Monnieri to your regular routine. This particular natural remedy is not effective at enhancing focus and learning, but it can be easily used as part of a nootropic stack in order to get all of the desired results.

# 3: Gotu Kola

This versatile herb is used in traditional Chinese medicine, and it can treat everything from bacterial infections to psychiatric disorders. Gotu Kola has also been utilized as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, and medical studies indicate that it does have a positive impact on intelligence and memory. People who have added this herb to their nootropics routine typically report feeling almost instantaneous results, and it is helpful for making people feel less mentally fatigued during periods of high stress.

#4: Brahmi

This herb is typically found creeping through marshes in India, but plants can be purchased and grown by gardeners worldwide. Brahmi, which is also known as Aindri Bacopa monniera, is well-known for having several positive benefits, including cognitive and memory enhancement. Testing showcases the fact that this herb can improve retention and cognitive functionality, and it also decreases the impact of retrograde amnesia. Due to this, it is sometimes used to treat people who are suffering from attention or memory disorders.

As you can see….

…planting these herbs can help you improve your memory and other cognitive functions. The fact that these herbal nootropics will also reduce your carbon footprint, help you save money and enable you to more carefully select the components of your nootropic stacks is an added bonus that definitely makes starting a small herb garden the right choice for people who are concerned about the environment.

Cardio vs. Strength training: Which One is Better for You?

Welcome to our new series: Cardio vs. Resistance training! We have successfully covered eating a healthy diet in the previous series…right down to the recipes we can make. Let’s dive into the benefits of cardio and resistance training…

on fitnessdonkey.com

Both are important for each of us! Fitness can be largely influenced by time (or lack of) and convenience. One of the most common thoughts for those with time constraints is usually: I have 30 minutes to work out today. Let me knock out some cardio. This isn’t a BAD thing, but we can actually get more benefits by doing resistance training if it is done correctly. The purpose of cardio is to sustain an elevated heart rate. We can also elevate our heart rate by performing resistance training, doing calisthenics in between each exercise. Calisthenics are: jumping jacks, running or walking quickly in place, etc. Doing this as opposed to doing an exercise and resting will incorporate out “cardio” into our weight/resistance training routine.

It is important to incorporate cardio and strength/resistance training into our daily workout routines.

Cardio

  • Elevates heart rate
  • Increases the flow of oxygen, therefore increasing our energy levels
  • Burns calories at the time of the workout

Resistance Training

  • Elevates heart rate
  • Improves joint stability, strength and bone density
  • Burns calories throughout the day

Cheating: The Truth about much of the Fitness Industry

Everywhere you look on the shelves in magazines, or on social media, all you see are these perfect bodies- people with perfect proportion, size, abs, muscle rippedness and definition. Whether you know it or not, images such as these seep in subconsciously. In fact, that is exactly what they are meant to do- persuade, influence, advertise, and sell. And they do indeed. Compelling photos of perfect looking people certainly attract buyers.

But is this the right perception that should be so widespread and worshiped when it comes to true health, fitness, and wellness? What you don’t see behind all the sensational imagery is what really goes on behind those seemingly perfect bodies- injections, illegal pills, hgh, and harmful supplements, all of which are not “truly” what living healthy and fit are all about.

fitness-hub

on: www.nhs.uk

This is important because it has an impact on culture- not just the culture of the industry, but on the culture of society. We live in a very superficially based culture- a culture in which what you look like is more important than anything, even if it meant taking drugs, pills, and hgh to do so. In other words, even if it meant “cheating” and harming your body.

It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to know that this kind of approach is exactly the opposite of what “health and fitness” are all about.

It’s a culture of “quick fixes” that often lead to long term regrets. It’s doubtful the regret sinks in right away. In fact, many drug abusers probably have no regrets in the moment while gaining the perfect body, being on the cover of magazines, gaining fame and recognition, etc. But the message they are sending to society is one that should be scrutinized and one that definitely should not be followed and is not truly representative of health and fitness, which is what they are selling.

In addition, they are actually taking away jobs and earnings from many professionals who do not resort to cheating and illegal, harmful drug use. In this sense, it is exactly like pro sports- the most achieving person gets paid the most amount of money, wins the starting position, gets the accolades, etc.. The players who don’t earn less, get less credit, and are not as well known.

It leads to the Ryan Braun and Lance Armstrong of the sports industries, the Mark McGuire, Barry Bonds, and others- people who shoot illegal drugs to win the award, the trophy, or the prestige and glory, which leads to more money and credit, while the others who don’t or didn’t cheat, and don’t have the bombastic exaggerated numbers, are barely existent, or credited. You would wonder who would win and gain the credit, or perform the best, if the field were leveled and noone truly cheated or used PED’s.

It is like that in the fitness industry and bodybuilding/figure world. There is no doubt that the fitness world is a good thing- it produces good habits, active living, inspiring others to exercise, and champion caliber athletes who inspire others to be the best they can be. But you have to wonder, much like with other sports, if deception is the accurate depiction to spread this message.

Back in the early 1900s, while bodybuilding was still in its’ infant stages, you rarely saw overly-enhanced bodies that appeared too good to be real. But in the same sense, that is why they were better-they were natural and more aesthetic. You could tell the people who graced covers and magazines really earned their results through pure dedication, hard work, and natural strategies. This was bodybuilding and fitness at its’ finest, in pure form, and probably more inspirational and for the better as a result.

You could go as far as to say it’s a lot of false advertising, and you would probably be mostly right- those bodies aren’t the way they are by anything natural, probably not the supplements they’re promoting, and no, you definitely have no shot of obtaining a physique like that even if you spent hours a day and years in the gym- unless you took steroids or drugs.

But it’s more than that. It’s deception. And this spreads the wrong message because there is nothing deceptive about the truly natural benefits of weightlifting, nutrition dieting, living active, and exercise, living a fitness lifestyle. Most of the best results are internal or more abstract- better quality of life, more energy, increased longevity, increased brain power, prevention of common sedentary lifestyle diseases such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes, increased mood, improved strength, improved feeling of well being, and a nice slim, toned body you won’t be afraid to show off at the beach.

Unfortunately, the fitness industry continues to promote and sell perfectly artificially enhanced bodies, and in the process, depicts the wrong idea to society. If not only glamorizing cheating, they also prevent good, honest hardworking athletes and professionals from gracing covers, and sharing their wisdom- wisdom that comes from doing it naturally. In this, the truth gets buried in the superficial, and what was once born of a solid message of the benefits of exercise and weightlifting becomes a corrupted and polluted version of the original purpose.

It’s amazing what might be when imagining what the sports and fitness industries would be like without steroids. Perhaps, a lot more “real”. Here’s a website elaborating the difference between simple steroids and legal steroids in great detail.

I hope you liked the post, please leave your feedback in the comments section below.

Performance Enhancing Steroids Are Not Worth the Risk

Are you a performer or an athlete? Ever wanted to enjoy a downright impeccable and flawless performance, all year round? Well in that case, you might have also pondered about various performance enhancing steroids. But then, have you ever thought about the risks of these products? These steroids are likely to improve your performance, but may come with certain health risks that can bring out terrible results in the long run. The following is a list of some popular steroids and the series of risks associated with them. Take a look.

Anabolic steroids

Athletes who are looking for a quick and hassle free way to build their muscles, usually go for the anabolic steroids. However, the risks associated with these steroids are immense. Men, who take these steroids regularly, are likely to develop prominent breasts and baldness. In either case your physical appearance will be affected. In some cases, these steroids may even cause your testis to shrink up and increase the possibility of impotence within you.

steroids

Women may eventually develop a deeper voice, and a high proximity of body hair. On top of that, the risk of being bald increases to a higher extent, once you take anabolic steroids on a regular basis. Thus, if you are a budding sports athlete, it is always better to avoid this steroid because of its huge side effects.

Androstenedione

5-Androstenedione

Androstenedione is one of the most viable body building potions that improve your capacity of training to a commendable extent. However, there are also a series of risks that you are likely to experience when taking this supplement regularly. If you are man you are likely to be affected by acne, and other big and small skin infections. Regular intake of the supplement may even cause breast enlargement. On top of that, your testosterone may dry up and your sperm production may also be relatively less.

For women, the side effects include acne and masculinization. Apart from acne, women are also likely to be affected by a series of other skin infections. Masculinization refers to deepening of your voice and experiencing pattern baldness all the way around. Thus, if you want to avoid these ailments try to avoid this supplement as well.

Human Growth Hormone Supplements

hgh-hormone

If you want to improve your muscle mass, this hormone supplement can be a great option. However, this hormone may also cause a series of major risks including joint pain, weakness in the muscles and high retention of fluid. Besides that, your glucose regulation may be impaired and you might experience high levels of cholesterol and diabetes. Cardiomyopathy and the Carpal Tunnel syndrome are some other ailments that might affect you by taking this supplement regularly. Thus, if you want to enjoy a fit and active body, simply avoid these supplements and follow a natural diet regimen.



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